About 90 % of all fish diseases can be put down to a weakening of the fish’s immune system. This means the application of remedies can fight the pathogen but doesn’t generally eliminate the cause. It is therefore very important to determine the cause.
As soon as the first signs of disease become noticeable IMMEDIATE action is required. In most cases people wait too long.
Hole-in-the-head disease/ spironucleus/ hexamita/ flagellates/ protoopalina:
The hole-in-the-head disease is caused by flagellates of the genus spironucleus or protoopalina. Under specific conditions, which have not yet been clearly defined, there is a mass reproduction of the flagellates which live in the fish’s intestine. They compete with the fish for mineral nourishment until the fish suffers from a mineral deficiency. In response to this deficiency the fish extracts minerals from its own bone tissue. Because the fish’s head has the largest bone substance, it is particularly here that it comes to a massive bone reduction which is visible as holes. The flagellates meanwhile move to the nearest body surface. Because the hole walls are the nearest body surface you can find the flagellates at the bottom of the holes. The flagellates used to be held wholly responsible for this disease. The truth of the matter, however, is that it is a combination of mineral deficiency and the massive reproduction of flagellates which leads to the hole formation. Tapeworms, roundworms, fish tuberculosis and malnutrition can equally lead to hole formation. Remedy: Increase by adding JBL Aquadur the mineral content of the water. So far occurrence of the hole-in-the-head disease has only been observed in very soft water.
Now combat the flagellates by adding JBL Spirohexol Plus 250.