The tortoise terrarium
This is basically set up like The desert terrarium . However, the floor covering should NOT consist of sand. Tortoises need a large floor area to move around. The substrate has to be covered with an approx. 2 cm thick layer of JBL TerraBark .
A large bent piece of cork can serve as a shelter. Stones and stone plates can be placed in the terrarium, but make sure there aren't any sharp edges.
A heat emitter and a heating stone offer the required heat and will quickly become a favourite spot. A drinking bowl ( Bowls & containers ) and a feeding bowl for vegetarian food should be provided in a sufficiently large size.
The animal size
Please remember the terrarium you need has to correspond to the maximum size of the tortoise species you are keeping. With tortoises, of course, it’s not the height but the floor area of the terrarium which matters. A good help is the following formula: shell length (of the largest tortoise) x 8 = terrarium length, terrarium length : 2 = terrarium width. For just a few genera and species you may use the factor 4 (Homopus spec., Malacochersus tornieri, Psammobates spec. and Pyxis spec.). The height should be about 60 cm to prevent adult animals from escaping out of the terrarium.
For further details please refer to all relevant literature and talk to your specialised dealer.
There are legal minimum requirements for terrarium sizes for turtles. As soon as you have chosen a species, find out how big the animals will grow and what size of terrarium will be required. For tortoises in particular, keeping them free range outdoors during the warmer months of the year is ideal and naturally also saves on electricity costs for heating and lighting. However, even those living in a flat can keep tortoises in a species-appropriate way if they have enough space available. Please be sure to observe the legal regulations in your country: In Switzerland, for example, Mediterranean tortoises may only be kept in outdoor enclosures
Desert and steppe-dwelling tortoises need a sandy but dust-free substrate (e.g. JBL TerraSand natural white). If the sand is too fine, they sink in and cannot move around easily. It is also important that, in addition to dry areas, there are also slightly wetter areas, such as those found in nature under bushes and stones. The tortoises don't really care about plants, stones or wood. It is more our wish to set up the terrarium as we imagine a desert or steppe landscape.
However, it is most important to provide a darkened "hiding place" to which the tortoise can retreat. Avoid sharp-edged stones, so that the tortoises do not injure themselves. Don’t use sand that can stick to the food, as this can lead to constipation. Make sure to provide a suitably sized food container that the turtles cannot knock over.
Forest tortoises prefer a loose soil such as JBL TerraBark to sand. You don't have to recreate a forest in the terrarium, but some subdued lighting (no bright lights!) is useful. Plants, wood and stones can be used for decoration, but a darkened hiding place is also essential here. If you are keeping female animals, you’ll need to add a layer of soil as thick as the width of the animal's carapace, to allow them to burrow.
It is essential that any structures made of wood or stone are stable! Turtles, even small ones, can be surprisingly strong and literally cause mountains to collapse. Be on the safe side by using a suitable adhesive, such as JBL ProHaru Rapid (superglue), JBL ProHaru Universal (also sticks under water) or JBL AquaSil (silicone).
When it comes to lighting, we differentiate between general terrarium lighting without UV, which would also be important for any plants (e.g. JBL LED SOLAR NATUR light bar or JBL Reptil LED Daylight in bulb form).
Spot lighting with UV radiation is also vital for the animals. There are various options here, which depend on the height of the terrarium and the distance from the animal to the lamp, which must not be too great, but also not too short. For the lamps mentioned below, the ideal distance from the turtle to the lamp is 30-40 cm.
- JBL UV-Spot Plus: Extra powerful UV spotlight with daylight spectrum for terrariums. It generates light, heat and UV radiation. Does not require a ballast
- JBL ReptilDesert L-U-W Light alu: Metal halide solar spotlight for desert terrariums. It generates light, heat and UV radiation. Requires a special ballast
- JBL ReptilJungle L-U-W Light alu: Wide-beam spotlight for rainforest terrariums. Like JBL ReptilDesert L-U-W Light alu, but with slightly less UV content and a wider 40° beam angle. Ideal for forest tortoise species
Tortoises associate light with warmth and will head for the area under the spotlight when they need warmth. When installing the light, it is important NOT to position it in the centre of the terrarium, but rather off-centre so that the tortoise can seek out sheltered spots. The temperature in the light centre should be 35-40 °C for desert and Mediterranean species and only 30 °C for forest tortoises. Mounting the lamp on the side is highly recommended for forest dwellers.
Genau genommen muss das Landschildkrötenterrarium der Schildkröte ausreichend Platz, Versteckmöglichkeiten, einen geeigneten Bodengrund, unterschiedliche Wärmezonen, einen Trinknapf, einen Futternapf und die richtige Beleuchtung mit und ohne UV bieten. Aber wir möchten unser Terrarium ja auch hübsch einrichten und wenn möglich, dem natürlichen Lebensraum der Schildkröte nachempfinden. Und genau an dem Punkt wird es spannend: Durch das Internet haben wir die Möglichkeit, Bilder aus dem Lebensraum abzurufen, ohne dass wir persönlich nach Mauretanien oder in die Südstaaten der USA reisen müssen. Lasst euch von den Bildern inspirieren und baut das Biotop nach. Pflanzen sind den Tieren eigentlich egal, aber sie sehen hübsch aus UND verbessern das Luftklima im Terrarium, da sie Feuchtigkeit speichern und abgeben können.
Landschildkröten sind Sonnenanbeter. Nur wenige Arten leben im Regenwald und benötigen weniger Sonne und damit weniger UV-Strahlung, als die vielen Arten, die in sonnendurchfluteten Regionen leben. Die Beleuchtung muss somit Wärme, UV-A und UV-B Strahlung erzeugen. Umfassende Informationen zum Thema Beleuchtung finden Sie hier:
Even tortoises need water! A shallow drinking bowl is essential. Many tortoises also like to bathe, so the water level needs to be fairly shallow to prevent them from drowning. A little gravel in their bathtub will help them to exit the container. When the bottom is too slippery, they can slip and fall when getting out, especially the younger animals.
As tortoises are rarely kept in closed terrariums, heat build-up is not a problem for them. Furthermore, their drinking/bathing container generates less humidity than in an aqua-terrarium for aquatic turtles. When keeping forest tortoises, however, it is advisable to cover the top of the terrarium a little to minimise moisture loss.
Many tortoises are kept in outdoor terrariums in the garden. Some are kept year-round, others only in the warmer seasons. Forest tortoises (e.g. red-footed tortoises and hinged tortoises) should only be kept outside in midsummer! For most species, which often come from the Mediterranean region, the months of April to October are suitable in Central Europe in a normal year. If these tortoises are provided with a slightly insulated house or a UV-permeable cold frame, they can even be kept outdoors throughout the year.
Luftfeuchtigkeit & Tag-/Nachttemperatur
Mit der Temperatur ist auch die relative Luftfeuchtigkeit verbunden, die bei niedrigeren Temperaturen, z. B. in den frühen Morgenstunden, am höchsten ist. Sie können und sollten mit Wassersprühern etwas nachhelfen und so Feuchtigkeit in das Terrarium bringen. Dies ist für den Bodengrund (auch für Sand) sehr wichtig, da viele Bodengründe viel zu trocken sind. Faustregel: Leicht feucht wie Blumenerde, aber eben nicht matschig!). Tagsüber sind Feuchtigkeitswerte zwischen 30 und 50 % anzustreben. Nachts und in den frühen Morgenstunden dann gerne 60-70 %. Überwachen Sie die Lufttemperatur und relative Luftfeuchte mit den beiden Anzeigeinstrumenten vom JBL TerraControl.
Einen typischen Tagesverlauf im Regenwald Kolumbiens bei Puerto Inirida finden Sie in der Tabelle.
|Uhrzeit Puerto Inirida
|Lufttemperatur in °C
|Relative Luftfeuchte in %
Heat for tortoises
Most species come from warmer regions and therefore need a heat source. Since a temperature reduction at night is almost always useful, the light source can also serve as a heat source. When the light goes out, the temperature drops too. You will find everything you need to know about heat in the terrarium here:
Depending on the turtle's area of origin, they may or may not require additional heat sources. It is often sufficient to use a UV-generating light source such as the JBL metal-halide lamps ( JBL ReptilDesert L-U-W Light alu (Special lamp for use in reptile keeping! Not suitable for other applications! No EEK label required. Exemption according to (EU) 2019/2015 Annex IV 3. c) UV radiation > 2mW/klm) and JBL ReptilJungle L-U-W Light alu (Special lamp for use in reptile keeping! Not suitable for other applications! No EEK label required. Exemption according to (EU) 2019/2015 Annex IV 3. c) UV radiation > 2mW/klm) ), which produce heat as well as UV radiation.
As the air temperature can drop to 21 °C at night even in the tropics, this alternation between higher daytime and lower night-time temperatures is highly recommended. Heating mats ( JBL TerraTemp heatmat ) are also well suited to bringing heat into a terrarium. The fluctuation of day and night temperatures is particularly important for tortoises in deserts and steppes.
As most tortoises have cold months in their home areas, we should definitely give the animals a rest period in winter. The animals are inactive for around 3-4 months and stop feeding. The ideal temperature of the environment is then between 4 and 8 °C, which is why many cellar rooms are too warm. Very light humidity and loose soil for burrowing in their winter quarters are important.
Overwintering in a refrigerator at 4-8 °C is also possible if the animal is buried in the substrate.