Filter materials serve various purposes: they either filter suspended matter out of the water (mechanical filtering), provide settlement space for bacteria that break down pollutants (biological filtering), or remove harmful substances from the water (chemical/adsorptive filter materials). Of course, mechanical filter media eventually become biological filter materials after a while.
The filtering should always go from coarse to fine inside the filter, as fine filter material clogs too quickly at the beginning. A coarse filter sponge or filter ceramic (JBL Cermec) is ideal for the first filter stage. For biological filtering, JBL Sintomec and JBL Micromec provide the largest possible surface area for pollutant-degrading bacteria. Activated carbon (JBL Carbomec activ/Carbomec ultra) filters out discolouration and medication residues.
JBL NitratEx and JBL BioNitrat Ex filter out algae friendly nitrates. JBL PhosEx Ultra helps against algae-promoting phosphate. Silicat Ex helps against silicic acid which promotes diatoms.
Filter floss should be used as the last filter material in external filters so that it does not get dirty too quickly. Only in multi-chamber biofilters can filter floss also be used as the first medium, as it is visible there and can be replaced in a few minutes. Filter floss cannot simply be washed out and should always be replaced during filter cleaning.
No pollutants released into the aquarium due to residue-free floss.